The declaration of Serra as a Catholic saint by the Holy See is controversial with some Native Americans who criticize Serra's treatment of their ancestors and associate him with the suppression of their culture.
A few hours after birth, he Lady wants casual sex Naugatuck baptized in the village church. His baptismal name was Miquel Josep Serra. By age seven, Miquel was working the fields with his parents, helping cultivate wheat and beans, and tending the cattle. But he showed a special interest in visiting the local Franciscan friary at the church of San Bernardino within a block of the Serra family house.
Attending the friars ' primary school at the church, Miquel learned reading, writing, mathematics, Latin, religion and liturgical songespecially Gregorian chant. Gifted with a good voice, he eagerly took to vocal Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls.
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The friars sometimes let him join the community choir and sing at special church feasts. Miquel and his father Antonio often visited the friary for friendly chats with the Franciscans. At age 16, Miquel's parents enrolled him in a Franciscan school in the capital city, Palma de Majorcawhere he studied philosophy. A year later, he became a novice in the Franciscan order. On September 14,some two months before Meet local singles Carson City 17th birthday, Serra entered the Franciscan Order at Palma,   specifically, the Alcantarine branch of the Friars Minor, a reform movement in the Order.
The slight and frail Serra now embarked on his novitiate period, a rigorous year of preparation to become a full member of the Franciscan Order. He still had seven years to go to become an ordained Catholic priest. He immersed himself in rigorous studies of logic, metaphysics, Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls, and theology. The daily routine at the friary followed a rigid schedule: The friars would wake Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls every midnight for another round of chants.
Serra's superiors discouraged letters and visitors. He followed the news of famous missionaries winning beatification and sainthood. InSerra became a priest, and three years later earned an ecclesiastical license to teach philosophy at the Convento de San Francisco.Swinger Windsor Ontario.
His philosophy course, including over 60 students, lasted three years. Serra was considered intellectually brilliant by his peers.
He received a doctorate in theology from the Lullian College founded in the 14th century by Ramon Lull for the training of Franciscan missionaries in Palma de Majorca, where he Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls occupied the Duns Scotus chair of philosophy until he joined the missionary College of San Fernando de Mexico in During Serra's last five Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls on the island of Lady seeking sex tonight NJ Rockleigh 7647, drought and plague afflicted his home village of Petra.
Serra sometimes went home from Palma for brief visits to his parents—now separated—and gave them some financial support. On one occasion he padty called home to anoint his seriously ill father with the Cuesga rites. Serra, now 35, was assured a prestigious career as priest and scholar if he stayed in Majorca; but he set his sights firmly on pagan lands.
While waiting to set sail, Serra wrote a long letter to a colleague back in Majorca, urging him Taboso console Serra's parents—now in their 70's—over their only son's pending departure.
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Now is not the time to muse or fret over the happenings of life but rather to be conformed entirely to the will of God, striving to prepare themselves for that happy death which of all the things of life is our principal concern.
Royal officials provided horses for the 20 Franciscan friars to ride up the Camino Real. Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls accepted the offer, except for Serra and one companion, a friar from Andalusia. Strictly following the rule of his patron saint Francis of Assisi that friars "must not ride on horseback unless compelled by manifest necessity or infirmity," Serra insisted on walking to Mexico City.
He and his fellow friar set out on the Camino Real with no money or guide, carrying only their breviaries. They trusted in Providence and the hospitality of local people along the way.Single Sexy Heppenheim Women Of Heppenheim
During the trek Serra's left foot swelled Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls, dq a burning itch tormented him. Arriving at a farm at day's end, he could hardly stand. He attributed the swelling to a mosquito bite. His discomfort caused him to stay over at the farm another night, during which he scratched his foot and leg to excess, desperately trying to relieve the itch.
The next morning his leg was raw and bleeding. This wound plagued Serra for the rest of his life. Hobbling into Mexico City, Serra joined up with his fellow friars at the College of San Fernando de Mexicoa specialized training center and regional headquarters for Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls missionaries. Serra requested that he do his novitiate year again—despite his academic prestige, and the fact that the college's novices were far younger men. Though his request was declined, Serra insisted on living as a novice at San Fernando: Or he Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls humbly carry trays and wait on tables with the lay brothers.
Besides the routine of prayers, hymns and meditations, daily life at the secluded college included classes on the languages of Mexico's native peoples, mission administration and theology. Before completing his required year of training, Serra volunteered for a mission in the rugged Sierra Gorda, to help replace friars who had recently died there. He was accepted as mission superior. Wife wants real sex Aquashicola
The Pames—who centuries earlier had Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls a civilization with temples, idols and priests—lived mainly by gathering and hunting, but Taaboao pursued agriculture. Many groups among them, adopting mobile guerrilla tactics, had eluded conquest by the Spanish military. The parishioners, numbering fewer than a thousand, were attending neither confession nor Mass.
Serra involved Pames parishioners in the ritual reenactment of Jesus' forced death march.
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Erecting 14 stations, Serra led the procession himself, carrying an extremely heavy cross. At each station, the procession paused for a prayer, and at the end Serra sermonized on the sufferings and death of Jesus. On Holy Thursday12 Pames elders reenacted the roles of the apostles.
Serra, in the Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls of Jesus, washed Cuesa feet and then, after the service, dined with them.Ladies Looking Sex Phoenix
Serra also tackled the practical side of mission administration. Working with the college of San Fernando, he had cattle, goats, sheep, and farming tools brought to the Sierra Gorda mission. Their products were collected and Beautiful couples want orgasm Bear to the mission residents, Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls to personal needs.
Christian Pames sold their surplus products in nearby trading centers, under Naughty girls Franklin friars' supervision to protect them from cheaters. Pames who adapted successfully to mission life received their own parcels of land to raise corn, beans and pumpkins, and sometimes received oxen and seeds as well. Within two years, Serra had made inroads against the Pames' traditional belief system.
On his visit from the Sierra Gorda mission to the college of San Fernando in Mexico City, Serra joyfully carried a goddess statue presented to him Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls Christian Pames.
The statue, showing the face of Cachum, mother of the sun, had been erected on a hilltop shrine where some Pame chiefs lay buried. Back in the Sierra Gorda, Serra faced a conflict between Spanish soldiers, settlers, and mission natives or "Indians".
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The soldiers had the job of pursuing runaway mission Indians and securing the region for Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls Spanish Looking for struggling Recife student. But the soldiers' land claims clashed Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls mission lands that Christian Pames were working.
Some of the soldiers' families tried to establish a town, and the officer in charge of their deployment approved their plan. The Pames objected, threatening to defend their lands by force if necessary. Soldiers and settlers let their cattle graze on Christian Pames' farmlands and bullied Pames into working for them. Serra and the College of San Fernando sided with the Pames—citing the Laws of the Indieswhich banned colonial settlements in mission territories.
The viceroySpain's highest official in Mexico, suspended the intrusive colony. But the townspeople protested and stayed put.
The government set up commissions and looked into alternative sites for the colony.Live Webcam Girls St Austell
It ordered the settlers to keep Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls cattle out of the Pames' fields, and to pay the Pames fairly for their labor with the friars supervising payment. After a protracted legal struggle, the settlers moved out, and in the Pames and friars reclaimed their land. Crowning his Sierra Gorda mission, Serra oversaw the construction of a splendid church in Jalpan.
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Cuwsta Gathering masons, carpenters, and Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls skilled craftsmen from Mexico City, Serra employed Christian Pames in seasonal construction work over the course of seven years to complete the church.
Serra pitched in himself, carrying wooden beams and applying mortar between the stones forming the church walls. During his visit TTaboao Mexico City, Serra sent a request from the college of San Fernando to the local headquarters of the Spanish Inquisition. He asked that an inquisitor be appointed to preside over the Sierra Gorda.
The next day, Inquisition officials appointed Serra himself as inquisitor for the whole region—adding that he could exercise his powers anywhere he did missionary work in New Spain, as long as there was no regular Inquisition official in the region. If it is necessary to specify one Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls the persons guilty of such crimes, I accuse by name a certain Melchora de los Reyes Acosta, a married mulattress, an inhabitant of the said mission. If such evil is not attacked, the horrible corruption will spread among these poor [Indian] neophytes who are in our charge.Smithland IA Bi Horny Wives
According to modern Franciscan historians, this report by Serra to the Inquisition is the only letter of his that Woman want sex Hugoton survived from eight years of mission work in the Sierra Gorda.
InSerra returned to the College of San Fernando. Over the next nine years he worked in the college's administrative offices, and as a missionary and inquisitor in the dioceses of Mexico, Puebla, Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls, Valladolid, and Guadalajara. In his missionary wanderings, Serra often kept traveling on foot, despite painful leg and foot sores. Emulating an earlier Franciscan Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls and saint, Francisco SolanoSerra made a habit of punishing himself physically, to purify his spirit.
He wore a sackcloth spiked with bristles, or a coat interwoven with broken pieces of wire, under his gray friar's outer garment. His nightly self-flagellations at the college of San Fernando caught the ears of some of his fellow Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls. In his letters to his Franciscan companions, Serra often referred to himself as a "sinner" and a "most unworthy priest.
In one of his sermons in Mexico City, while exhorting his listeners to repent their sins, Serra Any single 40 something women in Annandale Virginia out his chain, bared his shoulders and started whipping himself. Many parishioners, roused by the spectacle, began sobbing. Finally, a man climbed to the pulpit, took the chain from Serra's hand and began whipping himself, declaring: After receiving the last sacraments, he later died from the ordeal.
During other sermons on the theme of repentance, Serra would hoist a large stone in one hand and, while clutching Cuesta Taboao da serra party girls crucifix in the other, smash the stone against his chest.
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Many of his listeners feared that gorls would strike himself dead. While preaching of hell and damnation, Serra would sear his flesh with a four-pronged candle flame—emulating a famed Franciscan preacher, Saint John of Capistrano. Serra did not stand alone among Catholic missionaries in displaying self-punishment at the pulpit.